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Autor: Avari
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rticles and essays
       translation into English:
Justyna Brzezińska
Arkadiusz Janczyło
Sławomir Kułacz
Alicja Laskowska 'Freawaru'
Magdalena Mańko-Kuzaj
Bożena Mitko 'Nellelórë'
Joanna Piech
Agnieszka Sylwanowicz 'Evermind HS Took'
  • Tolkien and the Vikings. J.R.R. Tolkien's connection with the Victorian literature concerning the North - Michał Leśniewski 'M.L.'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 10. J.R.R. Tolkien’s works, especially the early ones, clearly draw on the Victorian literature concerning the North. He himself admitted to being influenced by William Morris, Andrew Lang’s fairy-tales or George MacDonald’s books. However, this is not all. In Victorian times historical, quasi-historical and fantastic literature inspired by the sagas and the mythology of the so-called North was very popular. Tolkien was not the first to lament the non-existence of English mythology. He was not the first to believe in the possibility of reconstructing the ancient, mythical past out of the few tales, words and expressions left from the past. He was not the first to seek how to reconcile the fascination with the pagan past with the belief in Christ. Many elements of the early legendarium have their parallels in the earlier literature. Tolkien, however, took a further step and this is what made him successful.

  • Samwise the Great - Maria Błaszkiewicz

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 16. The Author re-evaluates Sam as a hero and king-figure, discussing his deep personal transformation he underwent during the quest and showing how the fertility myth and solar imagery in the final parts of the book underline this new function of the initially humble hobbit.

  • Language and myth. Tolkien’s and Barfield’s concepts of 'meaning' - Karolina Stopa-Olszańska 'Melinir'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 12. The text discusses the influence of Owen Barfield’s concepts of meaning, language and myth, described in Poetic Diction, on J.R.R. Tolkien’s writings.

  • Éowyn – the misunderstood Lady of Rohan - Justyna Brzezińska

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 13. The Author strives to show that Éowyn, the princess of Rohan, is often underestimated and her character and deeds are misinterpreted in spite of the fact that it is an interesting, complex female character the supposed lack of whom in The Lord of the Rings is stressed by fans and critics alike. The interpretative analysis of the fragments of the text depicting the relations of the princess with other characters shows how much these opinions are at variance with the facts.

  • Who are you, and what are you doing in this land? A different way of looking at known things – an epic reading of 'The Lord of the Rings' - Maria Błaszkiewicz

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 15. In the article W.H.T. Jackson’s views on the nature and importance of the epic convention of heroic intrusion are presented and discussed with reference to Tolkien’s opus, with a suggestion of a possibility of applying heroic intrusion as its overall structural principle.

  • Noegyth nibin – racism in Beleriand? - Magdalena Kudelska 'Geirve'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 12. We have little information on Petty Dwarves, who sporadically appear in The Silmarillion. The Author carefully considers all information on them found in the legendarium and her interesting and alarming conclusions mar the hitherto unblemished picture of Middle-earth.

  • The Rivendell Hymnal and Tenebrae – Tolkien, Elves and the Roman Liturgy - Marcin Morawski 'Lomendil'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 8. The text concerns musical and liturgical inspirations in Tolkien’s works. The author refers to the Gregorian chant and the Latin ritual, so much liked and appreciated by Tolkien, and reveals more than inspirations – possible models of the poems found in The Lord of the Rings. Also, drawing on the Roman Catholic tradition, he shows possible Marian inspirations in the creation of the character of Varda.

  • Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of Huan) - 'Kasiopea'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 9. The three „C” brothers: Celegorm, Curufin, and Caranthir are possibly the most hated characters among the Noldor. Their notoriety exceeds even that of their father. Dark, short-tempered, unscrupulous – this is how they are described most often. The Author decided to face the black legend: she wonders if Angrod was psychologically weak, if Thingol was all right, if Finrod was an inept ruler. She also tries to show that the devil’s not so black as he is painted.

  • Mythopoeia and Quenta Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien – God, faith, freedom, and the Second Coming - Jakub Z. Lichański

    A translation and expansion of the articles from „Aiglos” 16 i 17. The thesis of the essay is that the poem is a modern manifesto of Christian faith, but presented in a patristic manner. The Author discusses Man’s place in the world created, as is believed by Tolkien, by God; he refers to Greek philosophers and the traditional teachings concerning the act of creation.

  • Nerdanel. A few words about an episode which did not have to be a mere episode - Michał Leśniewski 'M.L.'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 14. The text is not an attempt at showing this episodic female character, but at proving that Fëanor’s wife did not have to be unimportant. On the contrary, in his later writings Tolkien expanded her character and her role in the legendarium. Her episodic presentation in The Silmarillion is due to Ch. Tolkien’s decision.

  • The First Tolkienists - Tadeusz A. Olszański 'Halbarad Dúnadan'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 8. The article concerns the oldest critical books on J.R.R. Tolkien and his works, especially The Lord of the Rings, by C.S. Kilby and R. Helms, and shows that in spite of the passage of time those books are still valid.

  • Word, power and will – magic in the writings of J.R.R. Tolkien - Anna Adamczyk-Śliwińska 'Nifrodel'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 9. Is technology that is advanced enough indistinguishable from magic? Does technology, by making fairy-tale dreams come true, make people happy? Is magic in J.R.R. Tolkien’s works an art or a gift, and can it be learned? What problems did Tolkien meet while introducing magic into his legendarium? Can we find evocative, apotropaic or contact magic in his works? These are only some of the issues raised in this essay.

  • The Sense of Unity and the Category of Unity. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings in the Context of Medieval Epic - Agnieszka Kruszyńska

    The article previously unpublished in „Aiglos”, available only in English. The Author discusses medievalism in The Lord of the Rings: the unity of the world and literature, common memory, time and past, common fate and songs.

  • The Volsunga Saga as an Inspiration for J.R.R. Tolkien - Renata Leśniakiewicz-Drzymała

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No13. The text tries to trace possible Tolkien’s references to the themes known from the medieval saga. The Author analyses great works of the legendarium and the shorter Farmer Giles of Ham, not belonging to the Middle-earth reality.

  • Master of Doom and Ring-bearer: Fate and Free Will in Middle-earth of the First and the Third Ages - Tadeusz A. Olszański 'Halbarad Dúnadan'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 15. The article concerns the differences in the presentation of destiny and free will in The Lord of the Rings and The Children of Húrin.

  • Believe neither editors nor translators, or how I almost rubbed shoulders with a celebrity - Agnieszka Sylwanowicz 'Evermind HS Took'

    A translation of the article from „Aiglos” No 12. The Author describes the investigation of an inaccuracy in one of Tolkien’s letters and how thanks to Ch. Tolkien an editor’s mistake that twisted Tolkien’s thought was discovered and corrected in the Polish edition of The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien.



anfiction and poetry
       A selection of poems by Anna Adamczyk-Śliwińska 'Nifrodel' in Bożena Mitko 'Nellelórë'’s translation and of English-language poems by Marcin Morawski 'Lomendil'.


eviews and Interviews
  • Interview with Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond -from Aiglos No. 6 (Spring/Summer 2006) (with recent footnotes)

  • Interview with Tom Shippey -from Aiglos No. 8 (Spring/Summer 2007) (with updates)

  • Interview with Verlyn Flieger - from Aiglos No. 12 (Spring/Summer 2009) (with updates)

  • Interview with Michael D.C. Drout - from Aiglos No. 12 (Spring/Summer 2009)

  • Interview with Alex Lewis -from Aiglos No. 15 (Winter 2010/2011)

  • Review: A Fortress Made of Ice: The Silmarillion. Thirty Years On, ed: Allan Turner- -Tadeusz A. Olszański 'Halbarad Dúnadan'

  • Review: Destroying the tower built in Beleriand. Arda Reconstructed, i.e. a handful of comments on the book by Douglas Kane, on Tolkienologists and on Christopher Tolkien's edition - Michał Leśniewski 'M.L.'

  • Review: A Truly Monumental Work. A Handful of Remarks on J. R. R. Tolkien Companion and Guide by Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond - Michał Leśniewski 'M.L.'

  • Review: A Fairy Tale and Orality in Tolkien's Texts - (Adrian Jakuboze, Maria E. Pobieżyńska, Michał Żaczek, Baśń- oralność- zagadka) -Karolina Stopa-Olszańska 'Melinir'

  • Review: The Lord of the Rings, the book and the film as seen by the students of the Adam Mickiewicz University" - Anna Adamczyk-Śliwińska 'Nifrodel'

  • Review: The History of an unusual Friendship? Colin Duriez, Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship -Anna Adamczyk-Śliwińska 'Nifrodel'



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